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Commentary Open Access

Which Way for “Preference Programs” for State and Local Government in the U.S. : Comparison to Federal U.S. Preference Programs


For instance, there may be targets for “minority owned businesses” which includes a wide range of ethnicities such as African American (black), Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Aleut, India Asian, Asian, Pacific Islanders and Hawaiians. Another target area is “veteran owned small businesses” and “service disabled veteran owned small business”. In fact, the Veterans Administration is required to subcontract all their work to veteran owned businesses. Now, they have step by step, built up the category of subcontracting to “women owned businesses”. Under President Jimmy Carter, they first started keeping track of contract awards to this group, but no preferences. Now they actually have preferences for this category. And there is such a thing as “women owned veteran’s small businesses” and they are a fast growing group according to linked in group member reports.

Mary M Dickens Johnson*

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