Fluoride Contamination in the Groundwater in and its Effect on Human Health in Alladurg Area: A Case Study of Medak District, Telangana State, India
A total of groundwater samples are one hundred and eight were analyzed for Anions are Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Cations are Fluoride, Chloride, Sulfate, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Nitrate and, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and, Total Hardness in the Alladurg area of Medak district, Telangana state, India. In the study area Fluoride concentration varies from 0.1 to 2.6 mg/L with an average of 0.8 mg/L. The World Health Organization (2012) guidelines are in fluoride range is 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L for drinking water and these ranges are normal for human body. And they are advised to less than 1.5 mg/L fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks to consume in drinking water. In the study area fluoride concentration levels are exceeds above 1.5 mg/L in Basaltic area villages are Gunjothi (1.6 mg/L), Mungi (2.2 mg/L), Nyalkal (1.8 mg/L), Mirzapur (1.8 mg/L), Raikode (1.8 mg/L), Madhapur (2.5 mg/L), in lateritic area villages are Mirzapur ( 1.6 mg/L), Naimathabad (1.8 mg/L), Rejental (2.6 mg/L), Holgera (1.8 mg/L) and, Granitic area village is Kadchal (2.2 mg/L). Totally, in the study area fluoride levels exceeds in Basaltic area is 53%, Lateritic area is 26% and, Granitic area is 13%, these locations are not suitable for drinking purpose.