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 The T and B lymphocytes (T and B Cells) are involved in the acquired or antigen-specific immune response given that they are the only cells in the organism able to recognize and respond specifically to each antigenic epitope. The B Cells have the ability to transform into plasmocytes and are responsible for producing antibodies (Abs). Thus, humoral immunity depends on the B Cells while cell immunity depends on the T Cells. In the present chapter, the processes of ontogeny are summarized for each type of lymphocyte together with their main characteristics, the different subpopulations described to date, the signaling mechanisms employed for their activation, and their main functions based on the immunological profile that they present.

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