Department of Biology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Received: 14-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. JOB-22-60829; Editor assigned: 18-Apr-2022, Pre QC No. JOB-22-60829(PQ); Reviewed: 02-May-2022, QC No. JOB-22-60829; Revised: 14-Jun-2022, Manuscript No JOB-22-60829 (R); Published: 21-Jun-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2322- 0066.10.6.003
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Biosynthesis is a multi-step enzyme-catalyzed process in which living organisms transform simple substrates into more complex products. Simple chemicals are changed, transformed into other compounds, or linked to form macromolecules during biosynthesis. Metabolic pathways are frequently used in this process. Some of these biosynthetic processes involve enzymes found in many cellular organelles, whereas others involve enzymes found in a single cellular organelle. The biosynthesis of lipid membrane components and nucleotides are examples of these metabolic processes. Anabolism and biosynthesis are often used identically.
Precursor molecules, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes (which may require coenzymes) are all required for biosynthesis (e.g. NADH, NADPH). Monomers, the building blocks of macromolecules, are made up of these components. Proteins, which are made up of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are made up of nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bonds, are two examples of major biological macromolecules.
A variety of chemical processes are involved in biosynthesis. The following ingredients are required for these reactions to occur:
•The initial molecules or substrates of a process are known as precursor compounds. These can also be thoughtof as the reactants of a chemical reaction.
•Chemical energy comes in the form of high-energy molecules. These chemicals are required for reactions that areenergetically undesirable. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of these molecules promotes the progress of a process.Three phosphates are found in high-energy compounds like ATP. During hydrolysis, the terminal phosphate isfrequently split off and transferred to another molecule.
•Catalytic enzymes are specific proteins that increase the rate of a reaction while lowering the activation energy.
•Cofactors, also known as coenzymes, are molecules that aid chemical reactions. Metal ions, vitamin compoundslike NADH and acetyl CoA, and non-vitamin derivatives like ATP are examples of these. NADH transports ahydrogen atom, whereas acetyl CoA and ATP transfer an acetyl group and a phosphate atom, accordingly.
Many complicated macromolecules are made up of a series of simple, repeating structures. Fatty acids, for example, are the most basic lipid structures. Fatty acids are hydrocarbon derivatives with a "head" of carboxyl groups and a "tail" of hydrocarbon chains. Larger components are formed by these fatty acids, which then integrate noncovalent interactions to form the lipid bilayer. Phospholipids and sphingolipids are two primary components of membrane lipids that include fatty acid chains. These fatty acid units are not seen in a third important membrane component, cholesterol.
A bilayer structure of phospholipids is the foundation of all cellular membranes. The amphipathic phospholipid molecule has a hydrophilic polar head and a hydrophobic nonpolar tail. The hydrocarbon tails arrange themselves in the middle, away from water, while the phospholipid heads interact with one other and aqueous media. The bilayer structure, which functions as a barrier for ions and molecules, is generated by these latter interactions.
Phospholipids vary in a variety of shapes and sizes, and their synthesis routes change accordingly. The creation of phosphatidate or diacylglycerol 3-phosphate at the endoplasmic reticulum and outer mitochondrial membrane, however, is the first step in phospholipid synthesis.
These fatty acid derivatives, like phospholipids, have a polar head and nonpolar tail. Sphingolipids, unlike phospholipids, have a sphingosine backbone. Sphingolipids are found in all eukaryotic cells, but they are especially plentiful in the central nervous system. Sphingomyelin, for example, is found in the nerves of nerve fibres.
Ceramides, which are made composed of a fatty acid chain connected to the amino group of a sphingosine backbone, are used to make sphingolipids. The acylation of sphingosine results in the formation of these ceramides.
This lipid is a sterol, which is a type of molecule. Four fused rings and a hydroxyl group identify sterols. Cholesterol is a crucial chemical in the body. It is a precursor to various steroid hormones, including cortisol, testosterone, and hormone, as well as a component of lipid membranes.