Department of Ecology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Received: 28-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. JOB-22-78516; Editor assigned: 31-Oct-2022, PreQC No. JOB-22-78516 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Nov-2022, QC No. JOB-22-78516; Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JOB-22-78516 (R); Published: 31-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2322-0066.11.1.004
Citation: Greene M. Ecological and Environmental Biodiversity and Livelihood. RRJ Biol. 2023;11:004.
Copyright: © 2023 Greene M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Since the 1980’s, various agro ecologies in Ethiopia have studied long term watershed management. A study was conducted on the effects of long term watershed management on the dynamics of plant variety in the may bar sub-watershed in North-Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia. Data on plant diversity was obtained through field measurements, transect walks, and focus groups with important informants. Each plant can be classified according to its kind of plantation, such as cultivated crops, fruits and vegetables, cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs, grass, wild or semi-wild trees and shrubs, and Others. The presence of the plant can also be divided into past and present conditions. The statistical programme SPSS16.0 was then utilized to perform the analysis.
The analysis indicated that while two types of native plant species are currently extinct, the variety of recently introduced plant species has expanded by 14.41% since the last study. The percentage share of cultivated trees, shrubs, herbs, fruits, and vegetables has increased by 52.98%, 18.18%, and 1.8%, respectively. The number of plants classified as cultivated crops, wild or semi-wild trees and shrubs, and others has dropped, respectively by 25.31%, 18.31%, and 11.37%. Therefore, long term hydrological improvement contributes to a rise in plant diversity.
The groundwater is the combination of a defined hydrological unit's biophysical, social, and political components. It performs essential functions for life, such as providing meals, a habitat, and social and economic services. Therefore, there is a long history of water management that is sustainable.
It is the on going activity of conserving natural resources through preserving soil, water, and vegetation in an ecologically and environmentally sensible manner. It has massive benefits, including enhancing biodiversity and community livelihoods. However, due to steep slopes, industrial agriculture, heavy rainfall, a thin plant cover, and large stream flow generation, natural resource degradation is a significant concern in the Ethiopian highland.
One of the main threats to plant biodiversity is anthropogenic habitat loss or resource degradation. Plant diversity in a region may be influenced by shifts in land use management. Therefore, watershed planning provides an ideal chance to consider about biological conserving natural resources in order to address these concerns.
Since the 1970’s, watershed management initiatives have been implemented over the majority of Ethiopia. These activities bring together a variety of anthropogenic and natural elements, including economic, social, and political components, which cause shifts in land use and land cover. Modifications in land use and cover could affect the condition of plant biodiversity, runoff, and sediment load in a specified place. The impact of improving soil use and cover is directly correlated to changes in natural available resources. An area's change in land use and land cover might have a positive or negative impact on the amount of vegetation extant, the depth of the soil, the elevation of the groundwater levels, the production and yield of crops, and the quantity of pasture.
Therefore, preserving nature reserves and streams provides great prospects for reclaiming degraded land, enhancing soil fertility, developing water resources, increasing agricultural production, generating vegetation, and conserving a vast selection of species. Organizations that develop natural resources and localized social integration in conservation efforts have a major influence in increasing plant diversity. Moreover, it might enable it to conserve biodiversity and continue to cultivate native trees. The development of biodiversity and the regeneration of degraded land has certainly benefited from enclosed or care and prevention. It is important for enhanced species diversity and the regeneration of native species. About 67% of the approximately 4,80000 plant species that exist on earth have been identified. In the case of Ethiopia, this ratio was just not effectively evaluated. Although the growth of plant biodiversity is one of the watershed's products, its fluctuations over period haven't really been properly examined.