Biophysics: An Emerging Field
This paper, a review of early author studies is offered, as well as additional data to support the key principles advanced during the last two decades. The duration of the transient nucleate boiling process, the composition of optimal hardenability steel based on the form and size of machine components, and the calculation of cooling time to provide proper time interruption that results in the formation of high compressive residual stresses and super strengthening of the material are some of the main ideas. Exact experimental data from many writers is used to double-check the validity of notions presented by authors. The value of the current overview lies in its consideration of all early published material as a whole and the demonstration of relationships between ideas. The physical meaning of the resulting equations is discussed, as well as instances of calculations. The paper's structure allows for a better knowledge of the material and physics of quenching processes, as well as the practical application of new ideas.