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Research Article Open Access

Determination of Groundwater and Overland Flow Direction in Ndele, Rivers State, Nigeria


This study was carried out to determine the direction of flow of groundwater and overland flow at Ndele, Emuoha local Government area of Rivers state, Nigeria. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the longitude, latitude and the elevation above mean sea level at ten (10) locations spread across the study area. Water level meter was also used to measure the depths to water table which was used to calculate the hydraulic head in each of the ten (10) hand dug wells analyzed. Surface elevation and hydraulic head contour maps were then generated using surfer 8 computer software. The surface elevation and hydraulic head contour maps developed revealed that the overland flow and groundwater flow are towards the same direction; South to South-Western parts of the region. This makes the watershed area more vulnerable compared to other locations in the study area. More efforts should be made towards establishing eco-friendly practices in the North, North-Western and North-Eastern parts of the community to minimize groundwater contamination. It is recommended that boreholes be sited in the North, North-Western and North-Eastern parts of the community to avoid contamination of potable water sources. Moreso, an appropriate geophysical survey must be carried out before any borehole is drilled in the area.

MM Kekwaru and HO Nwankwoala

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