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Review on Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Chicken and Farmer Breeding Trait Preference Ecotype in Sekela Woreda, Northern Ethiopia
This study was conducted in Sekela woreda in Surba Bifeta and Gisha Abay kebeles to characterize chickens phenotypically. A total of 226 chicken owner households were selected randomly. Ten qualitative traits from 446 local chickens and eleven quantitative traits from 48 local chickens were used. The overall predominant plumage color of chicken in the study area were red (34.4%) followed by gray mixture (17.7%) and brownish (17.3%). The commonest comb color observed was red color combs. The majority of chickens possessed comb shape was double shape (44.6%), followed by single (38.8%) comb shape. Double comb shapes were predominant in male chicken in Surba Bifeta than Gish Abay Sekela. The result indicated that crest head shapes were the common predominant observed head shape in Surba Bifeta both female (40.5%) and male (32.8%). while flat plain head shape were highest proportion observed in Gish Abay both female (86.5%) and male (91.2%), thus there was significancely (p<0.05) differences in head shapes between the study area. The overall predominant earlobe color was red (36.1%) followed by red and white (34.3%). Almost all chickens (91.6%) of the study area were not having spurred. The spurs were more proportion observed in male chickens similarly in both study rather than female chickens. The predominant observed eye coloration was orange color in both study area. The most observed predominant feather distributions were normal feathered. The most predominant observed shank color was white (44.2%) followed by yellow (28.5%). Almost all chicken in the study area had no Shank feathers. The plumage color, comb type, sex of chicken, shank color, smoothness of shank, and body size were the major factors that cause vary in the price of chickens. The selection criteria of farmers’ used to breeding hen, egg size, plumage color, broodiness, disease resistance and hatchability was the highest selection criteria and ranking. The quantitative traits were indicated the significance differences (P<0.05) were observed between agro ecology with respect to wing spin (17.61), neck length (18.72), spur length (8.42), chest circumferences (28.3), body length (19.66), wing length (22.51), and shank length (11.47), But not significant differences were observed on the body weights (2.36), wattle length (2.33), thigh circumferences (11.40) and breast width (13.09) traits.
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