Shaheed Udham Singh College of Engineering and Technology Tangori, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, Punjab-140306, India
Received: 10/06/2015 Accepted: 24/06/2015 Published: 31/06/2015
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Food processing is the set of ways and methods used to transform uncooked parts into food or to convert food into different types for consumption by means of people or animals both in the house and by the food processing enterprise. Food processing more often than not takes smooth, harvested plants or slaughtered and butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and mainly long-life food merchandise. An identical process is used to provide animal feed. Severe examples of food processing comprise the delicate preparation. Food processing combines uncooked food parts to provide marketable food products that can be effectively ready and served by means of the purchaser. Food processing probably involves events reminiscent of mincing and macerating, liquefaction, emulsification, and cooking, pickling, pasteurization, and many other types of renovation, and canning or other packaging.
Food processing, microorganisms, Preservation, refrigeration, food, quality of food
More than eighty per cent of wheat produced in India is consumed in the form of chapaties a flat unleavened baked product and different traditional food such as parothas, poories etc. and relished through all of the segments of population. Chapaties also kind a fundamental factor of the staple food plans for Indian armed forces. Chapaties preserved in in a position-to-devour kind is ideally fitted to operational situations the place cooking services become confined or non-existent. Despite big advertising expertise, commercial marketing of chapaties has no longer picked up due to excessive perishability. The shelf-lifetime of freshly baked chapaties is 24-36 h they usually turn out to be unfit for consumption due to development of mould progress, ropiness and texture deterioration relying upon storage conditions . More than a few attempts have been made to continue chapaties with using antimycotic sellers like propionic acid, sorbic acid and different components for greater than 6 months. However, for the duration of storage the chapaties developed moderate bitter after taste because of preservative. Not too long ago lengthy shelf-lifestyles chapaties had been developed with the aid of reducing the attention of sorbic acid in blend with bio preservative nisin. Though these chapaties had been preferred by using the civilian buyers as well as Indian military during enormous scale trials, demand nonetheless persists for the chapaties without any chemical preservatives. As a result, makes an attempt had been made to develop shelf-steady, no preservative chapaties utilizing thermal processing and evaluate their storage balance in bendy retort pouches .
Starch noodles or cellophane noodles are general staple foods in lots of Asian countries in which China is the biggest creation and consuming nation. In contrast to the opposite types of noodles similar to wheat noodles or pasta where gluten protein is in charge for forming the community to combine different add-ons to type visco-elastic dough, starch noodles are made handiest from free-gluten starches and water, hence the starch homes are predominant for noodle processing and final product first-rate. The starch noodles may also be produced by means of shedding, cutting or extruding method . The usual traits of these methods are warmness remedy starch dough or slurry that are boiling or steaming to gelatinize the starch and cooling or freezing to speed up retro gradation procedure which fixes noodle constitution. However, cooling is desired to freezing in noodle production due to the fact more time and rate are required for freezing treatment. Noodle characteristics are most commonly outlined with the aid of visual attributes of the dry and cooked noodles. The dry starch noodles must be excessive transparence, excessive glossiness, inexistence of discoloration and straightly great threads. The primary characteristics for cooked starch noodles are texture and mouth, suppose, they will have to stay firmness, now not sticky after cooking, excessive tensile strength, quick cooking time and low cooking loss. The best of starch noodles almost always is measured via three distinctive features, namely sensory analysis, cooking fine, and textures.
Epidemiological evidences have shown inverse correlation between the consumption of dietary add-ons with antioxidant skills and incidence of a number of neurodegenerative diseases and free radicals are the fundamental culprits. Neurodegenerative illnesses corresponding to Parkinson’s sickness, Alzheimer’s disorder, a couple of Sclerosis and amyolotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) comprise a situation in which nerve cells from brain and spinal twine are misplaced leading to either sensory dysfunction (dementia) or realistic loss . Neurodegeneration had been alleged to be interaction of a quantity of motives including environmental and genetic predisposition but redox metal abuse occupies valuable role as most of symptoms stems out from abnormal steel metabolism .
Percent compositions of diagum SR, xanthan, guar, and dextrose had been determined to make best have an impact on the sensorial opinions. Viscosities also found to be changing with trade in wt% of alternative hydrocolloids. We desired to investigate the recipes composition as such that the chunks when added to the answer should have stick and stay as regular as feasible without forming any creamy layer however continue the creamy texture and mouth feeling for the pets . In both circumstances of starch employed for the be taught and investigation had been shown to have curb of their viscosities after retorting however the Loryma starch clear textual content MR 200 didn't perform good earlier than retort and gave better results after retort. This was once the case precisely anticipated out of the investigations. Hydrocolloids chosen as such that they synergise well with different hydrocolloids. Na2CO3 was used as a buffer within the recipes . Fruit juices are customarily targeted to lower their weight and volume, and accordingly to scale back their packaging, transportation and storage fees. Targeted juices are biochemically steady and have a protracted shelf existence because of the discount in the water undertaking. Nonetheless, conventional thermal awareness procedures are known to purpose losses of flavour and aroma compounds, and have consequent undesirable results on the flavour traits of the juice merchandise .
Fruits are fundamental sources of minerals, fiber and vitamins, which provides predominant vitamins and minerals for the human wellness. Additionally, it's known that some fruits have the so-called 'anti-nutritional' reasons (e.g. Phytic acid and tannins) that may reduce the nutrient bioavailability, principally if they are present at excessive stages , however, it has been stated that these anti-dietary causes could help to avert and deal with a couple of most important ailments; remarkably, the anti-carcinogenic recreation of phytic acid has been proven by in vitro and in vivo assays. The important nutrients gifts in crops are: carbohydrates, such as the starch and free sugars, oils, proteins, minerals, ascorbic acid, and the antioxidant phenols, reminiscent of chlorogenic acid and its polymers. These molecules are involved in pathogen resistance in crops, and the chlorogenic acid concentration represents concerning the 90% of the complete phenolic compounds in crops .
Animal and olive creation should accordingly be built-in as has been performed quite often in lots of areas of the Mediterranean Basin. Such integration can be profitable to each the animal and plant sectors. The animals would valorize by means of-products which represent a low cost feed however which might or else be wasted, even as olive plantations in turn would receive the benefits of an healthy fertilizer of which their soils are in most cases badly in need. Soler-Rivas et al. indicated that, the final content of Oleuropein and its transformation products is dependent upon the processing approaches .
Mathematical modeling for food product development or unit operations change to provide a food is growing and adopting some statistical strategies, corresponding to response floor methodology (RSM), to clear up problems the place a few independent variables (or reasons) influence the response variable value. Technical problems, data evaluation and modeling, experimental design and unbiased variables' option make food scientist and builders harder engagement. Variable resolution and optimization of outcome of desired product is challenging mission . For this cause, scientist should purpose at selecting most useful stages of the main ingredients/compounds in an effort to acquire compatible responses from preferred houses (like aromas, color, physicochemical, rheological and sensory parameters). As a result, by utilizing statistical systems, constituents and their version variety can also be established with a minimum quantity of experiments while decreasing vigour, time and cost of testing . This approach is central when laboratory trying out of power ultrasound processing of food product will have to be scaled-up. Scientist that deals with this discipline of novel non-thermal food processing knows the drawback of scaling up, and the approach is normally now not linear when comparing results from small volumes to tremendous ones . Consequently, experimental planning and design would lead to vigor, time and consumables saving, and to be environmentally friendly .
Starch based fat replacers, fat extenders and combo systems are in requirement to enhance the effectivity of those compounds within the specified fat reduction processing . Obtained product from new technologies needs now not most effective more advantageous high-quality but in addition less expensive and not more time-ingesting .
The expertise for bettering food quality by way of osmo-dehydration is big however confined by using quantitative knowledge and approaches. A more than one Linear Regression (MLR) strategy was developed for water loss and stable obtain for the period of osmo-dehydration of apple, banana and potato considering the effect of temperature, attention, time of immersion, sample dimension, pattern kind and agitation .
HCAs are effective mutagens and/or cancer agents at ng/g stages in cooked food and play an main role within the etiology of human cancer. Their formation is tremendously stylish on more than a few factors similar to cooking temperature, cooking procedure, cooking time, type of meat, fats, moisture content material, pH, sugar, free amino acid and creatinine content material of meat .
Hybrid hazelnuts are a potential oilseed crop for food and value-brought industrial functions, but they are susceptible to mold infection. Mildew and mycotoxin contamination had been investigated in three varieties (entire nut, kernel, and ground meal) of Nebraska hybrid hazelnuts. The nut was once essentially the most contaminated form, followed by means of floor meal and kernel. Penicillium used to be the predominant genus remoted from all three forms, and Alternaria and Cladosporium also had been commonplace. In spite of presence of a number of toxigenic molds, all demonstrated samples had been mycotoxin free .
One study concluded that establishment of slaughterhouse management organizations via public-personal partnership is an effective way ahead for the strong, efficient and sustainable method of managing meat creation facilities in countries convalescing from civil clash though this desires further investigation in other areas .
Computational analyses have revolutionized all streams of science including disease analysis, drug target analysis, all spectrum of molecular biology associated analysis and others [22-29]. CFD can be utilized as an instrument for design of food processing apparatus. Its applications comprise the cleansing of storage tanks, crystallization, traditional cyclones, drying, sterilization, crystallization, mixing and refrigeration, fermentation, baking and so forth. But its effectiveness and practicability depend upon several motives like strong CFD packages, high speed computer systems, well-versed CFD professionals and so forth . Nonetheless, the simulation outcome should be rechecked by way of experiments since CFD use many approximate units as good as few assumptions. There are still some obstacles akin to inability in accurate simulation of enormous three-D issues on a cheap laptop, especially in significant-scale subtle vegetation. However its development of popular purposes within the food processing enterprise is expected to rise in the twenty first century .
Excessive strain technological know-how (HPT) is gaining popularity with food processors now not only on the grounds that of its food preservation ability but additionally considering that of its knowledge to achieve interesting perform effects . High pressure processed food currently on hand in Japan comprise a range of jams that style like fresh fruit, sauces, salad dressings, in a position-to-devour muffins and grapefruit and mandarin juice with ‘simply squeezed’ contemporary flower .
Enzymes play increasingly major roles in cutting-edge food industry and attract so much concentration for their skills industrial applications. Nonetheless, as a protein, enzyme is almost always restrained to its recreation, stability and response stipulations in catalytic reaction. For that reason, appropriate amendment to increase the endeavor and balance of enzyme is major for applications, akin to genetic engineering, immobilization and/or system variations, chemical amendment of enzyme molecules . As a potent change system, restrained hydrolysis can by and large outcome in some priceless exchange for an enzyme in chain and conformation and therefore can alter the characteristics and functions of the enzyme. For examples, trypsinogen does no longer showcase catalytic activity before a six-peptide is removed from the molecule through protease hydrolysis and the undertaking of asparaginase may also be elevated 4 to five folds after its 10 or extra amino acid residues are removed from its carboxyl terminal by way of trypsin hydrolysis .
Food is a discipline of imperative curiosity to everybody on the planet. From the factor of view of human wellness, at reward, essentially the most salient division of foods and drinks is in phrases of their form, measure and intent of processing . Three essential divisions are targeted previous. For this, lots of the dietary advices say to take diets on recent and minimally processed foods, and on dishes and foods made up from such food with the addition of subtle materials extracted from whole foods .
Organoleptic analysis of beverages showed that orange soy RTS beverage ready from 80 % orange juice blended in soy milk established to be nice in line with physico- chemical properties. Followed with the aid of the 70% orange juice blend, 60, and 50% orange juice blended in soy milk found to have excellent taste and total acceptability . Learn displays that fruits would be used in making the beany flavor therefore promoting acceptability of soymilk. This would be worthy to communities the place cow’s milk is unacceptable, unavailable or unaffordable or because of lactose intolerance .
Within the baking enterprise hydrocolloids are of increasing value as bread making improvers. Most likely, the addition of hydrocolloids to dough improves its stability and fine criteria reminiscent of multiplied water absorption, designated loaf volume and the viscoelastic properties. From this study concluded that all from examined hydrocolloids positively affected dough stability and proved better water absorption capability . These compounds additionally affected sensory homes of ultimate merchandise in exclusive methods. For illustration when looking for the reduction of the staling, guar gum is the nice additive due to both its softening and retarding the firming of the baked items crumb results. Due to the excellent variation within the outcome promoted by means of the distinctive hydrocolloids, a scientific study is crucial about the influence of a variety of hydrocolloids in the first-class of wheat bread .
Smooth beverage industry has made giant development throughout last a number of years in terms of production, however there is best a confined range of flavors available in India. Many types of syrups, sherbets and tender drinks containing synthetic fruit flavors are well recognized throughout the arena . The fundamental factor considered is the nutritive and therapeutic values, which make them preferred and desirable. At present fruit drinks are quite often synthetic flavored, bottled and bought available in the market. If this would be substituted with fruit juice and dairy whey, it will be more valuable to the customer, dairy industries and beverage producers and fruit growers .
Cereal and cereal merchandise remain a staple element of diets all over the world. They make big contribution to consumption of carbohydrates, protein and fiber as good as diet E, one of the B nutrition, sodium, selenium, magnesium and Zinc. Nonetheless, apparently their position in promoting good wellness goes past in basic terms the provision of nutrients; there is so much evidence to suggest that normal consumption of cereal products, above all entire-grains, will have a role within the prevention of persistent diseases reminiscent of CHD, diabetes and colon cancer . These well-being advantages provided through whole-grain cereals are because of the presence of bioactive compounds within the entire grain cereals, which might be normally gift in the bran and germ fraction. Further research is needed to isolate and represent these bioactive compounds that make contributions to wellness. Many of these compounds are bound to the matrix of the grain, making their extraction complex .
Osmotic dehydration reduces substantially the drying expense and drying time of coconut samples because of loss of the initial water content material. The osmotic dehydration is a pre-condition which had a giant influence on the thermal air drying behaviour of coconut . The proposed thin layer drying model of web page provides an adequate preliminary description stage for the drying behaviour of coconut and this would symbolize gigantic software for engineering purposes. The Fick’s diffusion model showed a greater adjustment to the experimental drying information which allowed the selection of the potent moisture diffusivity. Osmotic pretreatment increased the strong moisture diffusivity .
Bodily and chemical cures are utilized in food processing to do away with or at the least scale down the presence of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Functionalized healthy food components had been developed utilizing micro-texturing and micro structuring processes similar to micro articulation, micro-shear, and extrusion texturization techniques . Food ingredients developed with the aid of this extrusion have improved texture with stronger bodily properties including ex-vivo or in-vivo performance. Texturization of proteins via extrusion processing happens at temperatures starting from 50 to 100°C at brief residence instances of approximately 2 min . Nevertheless, know-how of this processing healing on the survival and viability lack of microbial organisms gift on dealt with food objects is confined .
Sweet potato merchandise from unique cultivars have specific fried nice attributes. Cultivars GR and WT yielded fried merchandise with cut down oil content. Their products also tended to have desirable texture with vibrant color . The other cultivars (B, GJ #2010, and GJ) had excessive moisture content material and for that reason high oil absorption during frying. The difference in oil saturation between cultivar GR and the other cultivars is striking, defining their final oil consumption. Cultivar GR resulted in scale down oil content and crispy fried product .
Celiac sickness is a disease of the digestive approach that damages the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of vitamins and minerals from food. Celiac disease happens when the body reacts abnormally to gluten, a protein discovered in wheat, rye, barley, and potentially oat . When any individual with celiac disease eats food containing gluten, that person’s immune procedure causes an inflammatory response within the small intestine, which damages the tissues and outcome in impaired potential to absorb vitamins and minerals from foods. The irritation and mal-absorption create extensive-ranging issues in many methods of the physique .
The publish-processing contamination is without doubt one of the major reasons of foodborne illness and the associated food product remembers; a major public wellness hassle and a fiscal burden for the food enterprise. Hence, publish-processing antimicrobial interventions are gaining value with the intention to manipulate the progress of microorganism that contaminates the food product after the important deadly cure . Packaging of food is among the final steps in food processing before storage and consumption and accordingly is a vital step for incorporating antimicrobial mechanisms specifically to manipulate the submit-processing infection. Antimicrobial packaging is a promising form of active packaging to give a boost to safety and shelf-lifetime of food products . In antimicrobial packaging, dealers may be lined, integrated, immobilized, or surface modified onto packaging substances. Many compounds such as natural and organic acids, bacteriocins, enzymes, spices and polysaccharides (chitosan) have been tried in antimicrobial packaging with varying measure of success .
Milk and milk products type an essential factor of the human food regimen and no other single usual food meets the nutritional standards better than milk. There are various dairy merchandise like cheese, butter, ghee, paneer, khoa, curd; malai and many others., amongst these paneer is an essential indigenous dairy product . The shelf lifetime of panner is only one day at room temperature and 6 days at 10°C. Many strategies had been studied in an effort to overcome these problems and lengthen the shelf lifetime of fresh produce, for illustration, low temperature and high relative humidity, controlled and modified atmosphere packaging, and many others . Fit for human consumption film and coating enhances the nice of food products, defending them from bodily, chemical and microbiological deterioration. Fit for human consumption coating can act as moisture and gasoline barriers, control microbial development, retain the color, texture and moisture of the product, and may easily prolong the shelf life of the product .
Molasses, a by means of-product of sugar processing, is produced in giant quantity in Sudan. Sucrose is lost in sugarcane molasses which affect factory revenue; thus transformation of molasses to ethanol is viable substitute to maximise the usage of molasses. Ethanol is extensively used as a motor gas additive. The U.S. Grew to become the arena’s largest producer of ethanol which produced 49.2 billion liters of ethanol gas in 2010 . Yeasts are essentially the most on the whole used microorganisms for ethanol fermentation. Anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae generates, besides ethanol, carbon dioxide, glycerol and cell biomass as essentially the most giant byproducts. Carbon dioxide is an inevitable fermentation product, but the off-fuel will also be offered as a high-nice raw fabric . Glycerol will also be produced as a compatible solute for the duration of osmotic stress. The fermentative yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially employed in ethanol construction utilising renewable biomass similar to sugar cane, sugar beet and molasses as the fundamental carbon supply due to the fact this stress displays average values for fermentation parameters, corresponding to fermentation capacity in both low sugar (5% of sugar) and high sugar (30% of sugar) . Amongst them, sugar-cane blackstrap molasses is an extraordinarily priceless uncooked fabric for that reason, due to the fact it's low cost and abundant in the sugar industry. The ethanol fermentation can also be applied in batch, fed-batch or continuous mode .
The production of plastics has been growing notably because of the wide development of world population. Plastics are fitting part and parcel of our everyday existence and therefore plastic enterprise has emerged as a swiftly expanding enterprise in the past a few a long time . There may be 4% development in plastic production yearly, creating hundreds of lots of residues every day. During the last century the topic of “inexperienced chemistry” has received increased concentration. With a purpose to solve the problems generated through plastic waste, above all by means of disposable commodities, many efforts have been made to increase atmosphere friendly substances . The medication of waste plastics has become a major drawback when you consider that of the hindrance of ensuring reclaimed land and burning with the aid of incineration . The industry is now going through ecological and legislative disorders for handling plastic raw materials and finished merchandise. Presently, probably the most a part of uncooked material used for packaging are from petroleum-situated polymers, reminiscent of polyethylene and polystyrene . The utilization of biodegradable packaging materials has the greatest knowledge in international locations the place landfill is the main waste management software. Common bio polymeric films are thoroughly biodegradable and are derived from renewable uncooked materials and these residences make them fantastic over artificial polymers . They may be able to be used conveniently instead to artificial plastics. Biopolymers have also desirable total mechanical and barrier homes .
The alternative of unripe banana flour for rice flour greatly affected the hardness, oil content material and RS content of rice papad. Growing the levels of substitution through unripe banana flour improves the dough properties. The substitute of unripe banana flour for rice flour might be applied to improve the RS content material and oil content material of rice papad . Larger the measure of substitution, better the level of RS content material and reduce the extent of oil content material. However, when the measure of replacement of unripe banana flour used to be greater than 50%, it adversely affected the L* value i.e., whiteness of papad for that reason total acceptability as good as texture also will get affected. For that reason, the optimization of a couple of causes affecting the overall nice of rice papad, integrated with unripe banana flour, is primary to obtain the satisfactory possible dough and sensory exceptional of rice papad, as good as to gain health advantages of the high RS rice papad .
Deep frying is without doubt one of the oldest and most well-known food guidance ways. Deep-fat frying is an approach of immersing food in scorching oil with a contact among oil, air and food at an excessive temperature of a hundred and fifty to one hundred ninety°C . In the presence of oxygen, moisture, trace factors and free radicals, physiochemical reactions such as thermoxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization, isomerization or cyclization take position at excessive temperatures of the frying process, as a result leading to the decomposition of frying oil and formation of monomeric, polymeric, major and secondary oxidative compounds, thereby affecting the pleasant of oil and fried product .
The consequences of blanching and drying ways on the physicochemical homes of okra (girl’s fingers) were studied. Contemporary sliced “okra” used for the be taught used to be divided into two parts . One portion was steam-blanched, oven-dried and packaged in black polyethylene bag and saved in a dark cool location and over fireplace for eight weeks. The second portion used to be steam-blanched, solar-dried, packaged and saved as described for the oven-dried sample . The contemporary and saved samples have been analyzed for their proximate composition and mineral contents. The results confirmed that blanching followed through oven or sun drying diminished the moisture, vitamins A and C concentrations but increased the, protein, ash, iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium contents of the okra fruits . However, the oven dried okra samples have been better in these components than the sun-dried okra pattern. The viscosity and moisture content material of the samples diminished for the period of storage, regardless of the storage stipulations . However, the blanched and oven-dried okra samples packaged in air-tight container and saved in darkish, cool position, retained extra of its chemical ingredients and viscosity than the opposite stored samples [79-84].
In-package deal pasteurization could be practiced as one of the crucial efficient put up-processing decontamination approaches chiefly in view that of the fact that it's employed after completing all the dealing with steps in RTE meat merchandise training and the deadly effects received will stay at a safer stage offered a right storage temperature and strict retail and customer handling of the product . One of the most challenges for the industry could be to verify the specified time and temperature mixture for you to depend upon product thickness and other traits . When utilized in combo with other ways, the bacterial survival curves acquired won't comply with first-order kinetics (the survival curves is also of non-linear in nature) and consequently the typical use of D and Z-values may result in over or beneath processing. Extra research is needed to standardize various mathematical modeling methods to suit the exact enterprise scenario [87-93].
Lipid oxidation, colour and sensory attributes of fresh camel meat stored at fourÃÂC have been affected by modified atmosphere packaging conditions (AP: Air packaging, VP: Vacuum packaging, MAP: 60% CO2+forty% N2). The a* value had been decrease in samples packed under vacuum than within the other organizations . Modified atmosphere packaging camel meat had no greatly (P<zero.05) distinctive TBARS price and the phases of TBARS weren't positively correlated with storage time [85-88]. Our gain knowledge of showed that even though oxidative rancidity (TBARS) increased with storage time in air-packaged samples, it didn't affect the deterioration of sensory pleasant until day 14. Sensory panel outcome had been most often contract with the physicochemical changes, suggesting that the MAP had a giant have an impact on the quality of refrigerated camel meat. Modified atmosphere packaging of recent camel meat accompanied by means of refrigeration storage enhanced product shelf life for 21 days without undesirable and hazardous effects on its sensory acceptability [95-101].
Food processing dates back to the prehistoric a while when crude processing incorporated fermenting, solar drying, preserving with salt, and quite a lot of forms of cooking (akin to roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven baking), Such general food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the elemental constitution of food in its traditional type, as good served to build a barrier towards floor microbial activity that caused speedy decay . Salt-preservation was once specifically normal for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods . Proof for the existence of those approaches may also be discovered in the writings of the historical Greek, Chaldean, Egyptian and Roman civilizations as good as archaeological proof from Europe, North and South the us and Asia. These tried and established processing techniques remained basically the same except the appearance of the commercial revolution [104-108]. Examples of competent-ingredients also date back to before the preindustrial revolution, and comprise dishes akin to Cornish pasty and Haggis. Each during historic times and at present in today's society these are viewed processed foods.