Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Zambia, Zambia, South Africa
Received: 27-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JFPDT-23-93931; Editor assigned: 01-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. JFPDT-23-93931 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Mar-2023, QC No. JFPDT-23- 93931; Revised: 22-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JFPDT-23-93931 (R); Published: 31-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6204.11.1.006
Citation: Yates R. A Commentary on Fermented Drinks used in Alcoholic Beverage. RRJ Food Dairy Technol. 2023;11:006
Copyright: © 2023 Yates R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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An alcoholic beverage (also known as a adult beverage, or a drink) is a beverage containing ethanol, a type of alcohol that acts as a drug and is produced through the fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sugar sources. In many cultures, the consumption of alcoholic beverages, also known as "drinking," plays an important social role. Most countries have laws governing the production, distribution, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Regulations may mandate the labelling of the percentage alcohol content as well as the use of a warning label. Some countries outright prohibit such activities, but alcohol is legal in the vast majority of the world. The global alcoholic beverage industry surpassed $1 trillion in 2018. In small doses, alcohol is a depressant that causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, and increases sociability. At higher doses, it causes intoxication, stupor, unconsciousness, or death. Long-term alcohol use can lead to alcoholism, as well as an increased risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease, and physical dependence. According to WHO, alcohol is the highest risk-group carcinogen, and no amount of its consumption is safe; the temperance movement advocates against the consumption of alcoholic beverages, and teetotallers are those who do not consume alcoholic beverages.
Alcohol is one of the world's most popular recreational drugs, with approximately 33% of all humans currently using it. In 2015, 86% of adults in the United States had consumed alcohol at some point in their lives, with 70% doing so in the previous year and 56% doing so in the previous month. Beers, wines, and spirits are the three most common types of alcoholic beverages, with alcohol content ranging from 3% to 50%. Fermented drinks may have existed as early as the Neolithic period, according to the discovery of late Stone Age jugs (around 10,000 BC). Several other animals are affected by alcohol in the same way that humans are and, once consumed, will consume it again if given the opportunity, though humans are the only species known to purposefully produce alcoholic beverages.
Beer: Beer is a grain-based fermented beverage. It is typically brewed with hops and made from barley or a combination of grains. The majority of beer is naturally carbonated during the fermentation process. When the fermented mash is distilled, it is transformed into a spirit. Beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage in the world.
Fermented tea: Fermented tea is a type of tea that has been fermented by microorganisms for several months to many years. The tea leaves and the spirits made from them darken as they oxidise. As a result, the various fermented teas produced throughout China are also known as dark tea rather than black tea. Kombucha, which is frequently homebrewed, pu-erh from Yunnan Province and Anhua dark tea from Anhua County in Hunan Province are the most well-known fermented teas. The majority of kombucha on the market contains less than 0.5% alcohol.
Fermented water: Fermented water is an ethanol-based water solution with an alcohol by volume (ABV) of 15%-17%. White sugar, yeast, and water are the only ingredients used to make fermented water. Fermented water is clarified after fermentation to produce a colorless or off-white liquid with no discernible taste other than ethanol.
Wine: Wine is a fermented beverage that is mostly made from grapes. Wine undergoes a longer fermentation process than beer, as well as a longer ageing process (months or years), resulting in an ABV ranging from 9% to 16%. Sparkling wines made from grapes include French Champagne, Catalan Cava, and Italian Prosecco. Fruit wines are made from fruits other than grapes, such as plums, cherries, or apples.