Department of Food and Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Received: 27-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JFPDT-23- 93944; Editor assigned: 01-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. JFPDT-23- 93944(PQ); Reviewed: 15-Mar-2023, QC No. JFPDT-23- 93944; Revised: 22-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JFPDT-23- 93944 (R); Published: 31-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6204.11.1.007
Citation: Becker V. A Detail Explanation on Feeding, Weaning and Milking in Dairy Farming. RRJ Food Dairy Technol. 2023;11:007
Copyright: © 2023 Becker V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Food and Dairy Technology
Dairy farming is a type of agriculture that involves the long-term production of milk, which is then processed (either on the farm or at a dairy plant, both of which can be referred to as a dairy) for the eventual sale of a dairy product. Dairy farming dates back to the early Neolithic period, around the seventh millennium BC, in many parts of Europe and Africa. Milking was done by hand on small farms prior to the twentieth century. Milking was done in large scale dairy farms beginning in the early twentieth century, with innovations such as rotary parlours, the milking pipeline, and automatic milking systems that were commercially developed in the early 1990s. Milk preservation methods have improved since the late nineteenth century, with the introduction of refrigeration technology such as direct expansion refrigeration and the plate heat exchanger. These methods of cooling allowed dairy farms to preserve milk by reducing spoilage caused by bacterial growth and humidity. Leading dairy industries in many countries around the world, including India, the United States, China, and New Zealand, are important milk producers, exporters, and importers. According to the FAO, total milk production has increased globally since the late twentieth century, with approximately 827,884,000 tonnes produced in 2017.
There has been considerable concern about the amount of waste produced by dairy industries, as evidenced by manure disposal and air pollution caused by methane gas. The industry's contribution to agricultural greenhouse gas emissions has also been identified as having environmental consequences. Several measures have been implemented to reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted by dairy livestock. The use of rBST has also been a source of contention. Animal welfare activists have criticized dairy farming in general due to the health issues imposed on dairy cows as a result of intensive animal farming. As we know it, centralized dairy farming arose primarily in villages and cities where residents were unable to own cows due to a lack of grazing land. Farmers near the town could supplement their income by keeping additional animals and selling milk in town. In the morning, dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk and transport it to market on a waggon. Until the late nineteenth century, cow milking was done by hand. In the United States, several large dairy operations with hundreds of cows existed in some northeastern states and in the west, but an individual milker could not be expected to milk more than a dozen cows per day.
Most herds milked twice a day, in a barn, with the cattle tied around the neck with ropes or held in place by stanchions. Although feeding and milking could occur concurrently in the barn, most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings. Such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to find, but some have been preserved as historic sites to provide a glimpse into the past. Point Reyes National Seashore is one such location that allows for this.
Weaning is a critical process in dairy farming. It is essential to consider factors such as the calf's weight, age, feed intake, and rumen development before weaning. Gradual weaning over 1-2 weeks is recommended to reduce stress on the calf. The calf's diet should contain 20% crude protein for calves on milk and 17% crude protein for weaned calves. Weaning weight varies based on breed and the rearing system. It is important to monitor the calf's behavior and feed intake during the weaning process. Relocation should be avoided as it can cause growth checks and health issues. Calves should be fed to grow around 1.75 pounds per day after weaning. Additionally, managing young stock before weaning is crucial, and calves should be used to forage and grain before weaning.
Dairy farming has been around for thousands of years. Historically, it was a component of small, diverse farms. Larger farms specializing in dairy production emerged in the last century. Large-scale dairy farming is only feasible where either a large amount of milk is required for the production of more durable dairy product.