Department of Food Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Received: 11-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JFPDT-22-79599; Editor assigned: 14-Nov-2022, PreQC No. JFPDT-22-79599 (PQ); Reviewed: 28-Nov-2022, QC No. JFPDT-22-79599; Revised: 30-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JFPDT-22-79599 (R); Published: 07-Feb-2023, DOI:10.4172/2321-6204.11.2.007
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Food and Dairy Technology
Eating (also known as consuming) is the act of ingesting food, typically to provide energy and allow a heterotrophic organism to grow. Carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores eat a combination of plant and animal matter, and detritivores eat detritus. Fungi digest organic matter outside of their bodies, whereas animals digest their food within their bodies. Eating is a necessary part of human life. Some people may restrict their nutritional intake. This could be due to a lifestyle choice, hunger or famine, as part of a diet, or religious fasting.
Eating practices among humans: Many homes have a large kitchen area dedicated to meal preparation and food preparation, as well as a dining room, dining hall, or other designated eating area.
Most societies also have restaurants, food courts, and food vendors where people can eat when they are away from home, don't have time to prepare food, or want to interact. At their most refined, these locations become "theatrical spectacles of global cosmopolitanism and myth." Eating is the primary purpose of a social gathering at picnics, potlucks, and food festivals. Food and beverages are frequently served at social gatherings.
People typically eat two or three meals per day. Snacks of varying sizes may be consumed in between meals. Doctors in the United Kingdom recommend three meals per day (400-600 kcal per meal), with four to six hours between meals. Three well-balanced meals (described as: Half of the plate with vegetables, 1/4 protein food as meat and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice) will total 1800-2000 kcal, which is the average requirement for a regular person.
It may be prohibited for Muslim adults to fast during the daylight hours of Ramadan in Sharia compliant jurisdictions.
Eating positions differ according to region of the world, as culture influences how people eat their meals. For example, in most Middle Eastern countries, eating on the floor is more common, and it is thought to be healthier than eating at a table.
The Ancient Greeks preferred eating while reclining at a celebration known as a symposium, and the Ancient Romans followed suit. This posture was also used by ancient Hebrews during Passover celebrations.
Compulsive overeating: Compulsive overeating, also known as emotional eating is defined as "the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions." According to empirical studies, anxiety leads to decreased food consumption in people of normal weight and increased food consumption in obese people.
Many laboratory studies have shown that people who are overweight are more emotionally reactive and more likely to overeat when they are stressed than people who are normal weight. Furthermore, it has been consistently discovered that obese people experience negative emotions more frequently and intensely than people of normal weight.
Lowe and Fisher's naturalistic study compared the emotional reactivity and emotional eating of normal and overweight female college students. The study confirmed obese people's proclivity to overeat, but the findings only applied to snacks, not meals. That is, obese people did not eat more during meals; rather, the amount of snacks they ate in between meals was higher. Lowe and Fisher propose that obese people frequently eat with others and do not eat more than the average person because the presence of other people reduces their distress. Another possible explanation is that obese people do not eat more than others when they eat because they are socially desirable. Snacks, on the other hand, are typically consumed alone.
Role of the brain: Because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and satiety signals from other parts of the body, the brain stem can control food intake. Rats have been used to study the brain stem's involvement in food intake. Rats with decerebration of the motor neurons in the brain stem from the neural circuits of the cerebral hemispheres are unable to approach and eat food. They must instead obtain their food in liquid form. This study demonstrates that the brain stem does, in fact, play a role in eating.
The hypothalamus contains two peptides that cause hunger: Melanin Concentrating Hormone (MCH) and orexin. MCH has a greater impact on the production of hunger. MCH stimulates feeding in mice, and a mutation that causes MCH overproduction results in overeating and obesity. Orexin has a greater influence on the relationship between eating and sleeping. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein are two other hypothalamic peptides that stimulate Leptin promote satiety in the hypothalamus. Leptin binds to receptors on the arcuate nucleus and inhibits MCH and orexin secretion. Two more peptides that suppress hunger are also found in the arcuate nucleus. The first is called Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART), and the second is called MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone).
Disorders: Eating is physiologically triggered by hunger, but there are a variety of physical and psychological conditions that can affect appetite and disrupt normal eating patterns. Depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland malfunction and other endocrine problems, and a variety of other illnesses and eating disorders are examples of these.
A chronic lack of nutritious food can result in a variety of illnesses and, eventually, starvation. When this occurs on a large scale in a community, it is referred to as a famine.
If eating and drinking are not possible, as is often the case when recovering from surgery, enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition are choices.