Department of Food and Information Technology, Comsats University Islamabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan
Received: 03-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JFPDT-22-68322; Editor assigned: 06-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. JFPDT-22-68322 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Jun-2022, QC No. JFPDT-22- 68322; Revised: 27-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JFPDT-22-68322 (A); Published: 04-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6204.10.3.002
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Any type of marine life that humans consider to be food is considered seafood, with fish and shellfish topping the list. Echinoderms, crustaceans, and different molluscan species are all considered to be shellfish. Historically, marine animals like seals and cetaceans were consumed as food; today, however, this practise is less common. Around the world, especially in Asia, edible sea plants such certain seaweeds and microalgae are frequently consumed as sea vegetables. Especially in coastal regions, seafood is a significant source of (animal) protein in many cuisines all over the world. Pescetarians are considered to be semi-vegetarians who solely eat seafood as a source of meat.
While cultivating and raising seafood is known as aquaculture and fish farming, the collecting of wild seafood is typically referred to as fishing or hunting. The majority of the harvested seafood is consumed by people, although a sizeable amount is utilised as fish food to raise other fish or farm animals. Some fish and seafood are fed to other plants as food.
These are some of the ways that seafood is used to make more food for human use. Additionally, items like fish oil and spirulina tablets are made from the extraction of seafood. Some seafood is used to feed household animals like cats or aquarium fish. Only a minor amount is used industrially for non-food uses or in medicine.
Marine pelagic: Pelagic fish do not dwell or feed on the ocean floor; instead, they do it near the surface or in the water column. Larger predator fish (sharks, tuna, billfish, mahi-mahi, mackerel, salmon) and smaller forage fish make up the major seafood groupings (herring, sardines, sprats, anchovies, menhaden). The smaller forage fish consume plankton and have a limited capacity to store poisons. Forage fish are consumed by larger predator fish, which also accumulate poisons to a far greater extent than forage fish.
Marine demersal: Fish that live and eat near or on the ocean floor are called demersal fish. Cod, flatfish, grouper, and stingrays are a few types of seafood. Demersal fish are more stationary than pelagic fish and mostly feed on crustaceans they discover on the ocean floor. Demersal fish often have white meat, but pelagic fish typically have red flesh indicative of the powerful swimming muscles they require.
Diadromous: Fish that migrate between freshwater and saltwater are called diadromous fish. Salmon, shad, eels, and lampreys are examples of seafood species.
Freshwater: Rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and ponds are all home to freshwater fish. Trout, bass, catfish, trout, carp, and tilapia are a few types of seafood. Fish from freshwater are typically easier to cultivate than fish from the ocean, hence the majority of the tonnage reported here is from fish farms.
Bivalves: Bivalve shells, sometimes known as clams, are made up of two hinged sections. Bivalve literally translates to "two shells" since the protective shell of a bivalve is known as a valve. Oysters, scallops, mussels, and cockles are notable seafood bivalves. The majority of these are filter feeders that hide under dirt on the seafloor to protect themselves from predators. Others lay on the ocean floor or cling to rocks or other solid objects. Some can swim, like scallops. In coastal areas, bivalves have long been a staple of the cuisine. The Romans raised oysters in ponds, and more recently, mariculture has emerged as a significant supply of edible bivalves.
Gastropods: The term "aquatic gastropods" refers to animals that have a single-piece protective shell and are also referred to as sea snails. Because they appear to move on their stomachs, the word gastropod literally means "stomach foot." Abalone, conch, limpets, whelks, and periwinkles are typical seafood species.
Cephalopods: With the exception of nautilus, cephalopods lack an external shell for protection. Because their limbs resemble extensions of their heads, the word "cephalopod" literally translates as "head-foots." They are extremely intelligent and have superb vision. Cephalopods use an ink and water jet to propel themselves while also creating "smoke screens." Octopus, squid, and cuttlefish are some examples. Many cultures eat them. The arms and perhaps other body parts are prepared in different ways depending on the species. To get rid of slime, odour, and leftover ink from octopuses, they must be properly boiled. Popular in Japan is squid. Squid is frequently referred to as calamari in English-speaking and Mediterranean nations. Although it is popular in Italy and dried, shredded cuttlefish is a snack food in East Asia, cuttlefish is less frequently consumed than squid.