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Special Issue Article Open Access

Relative Significance of Wheat flour quality factors determining gluten strength

Abstract

Wheat is widely used in processing of wheat based products. Suitability of a wheat variety for particular end products primarily depends on the composition of its gluten proteins. Efforts were made to investigate the relative significance of wheat flour quality factors influencing the gluten strength. Twelve wheat varieties were assessed for hardness index, physicochemical, gluten quality and rheological parameters. Grain hardness index ranged from 72.53 to 94.80, whereas protein content and SDS sedimentation volume varied from 7.92 to 13.22% and 30 to 67ml, respectively. Wet and dry gluten quantity ranged from 17.95 to 28.91% and 5.96 to 11.30%, respectively. Gluten index (99.14) was recorded the highest for the variety HPBW01, whereas it (58.66) was observed the lowest for the variety HI1500. R/E ratio of glutens of different varieties varied from 0.75 to 4.22. SDS sedimentation volume values of flour samples were positively associated with protein concentration (r2= 0.525) and R/E ratio (r2= 0.709). Gluten index was found to have positive correlation with R/E (r2= 0.502), indicating their significance to gluten strength. Dough development time was highly correlated with energy at peak with r2= 0.975 at the 0.01 level. Linear regression equation showed reliability of gluten strength on the protein content, glutenin content and dough development time. Principal component analysis showed the higher loading factor for SDS sedimentation volume (0.803), glutenin (0.926), dry gluten (0.673), resistance/extension ratio (0.660), dough development time (0.725) and energy at peak (0.789) explaining their maximum contribution in determining gluten strength. The results suggest that R/E ratio, SDS volume, protein content, gluten index, dough development time can be used as promising parameters to predict the strength of wheat gluten.

Aastha Dewan
Research Scholar, GJUS&T, Haryana
B S Khatkar, Professor, GJUS&T, Haryana (Hisar) India

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